Energy-related CO2 emissions fell 6% in G20 countries last year, according to the Climate Transparency Report, released on Thursday. In 2021, however, they are expected to rebound by 4%. “The rebound in emissions through the G20, the group responsible for 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions, shows that significant and rapid emission reductions are now urgently needed to achieve the net zero announcements,” said Gahee Han of the South Korean organization ‘Solutions for our climate’, which is one of the report’s lead authors.
The report notes some positive developments such as the growth of solar and wind energy, with new records of installed capacity reached in 2020. The share of renewable energies in energy supply is expected to increase from 10% in 2020 to 12% in 2021. (energy used to generate electricity and heat), renewable energies increased by 20% between 2015 and 2020, and are expected to reach nearly 30% in the G20 this year.
At the same time, however, experts note that with the exception of the UK, G20 members have neither short nor long term strategies to achieve 100% renewable energy in the energy sector. electricity by 2050.
Coal in demand
However, dependence on fossil fuels is not decreasing. Indeed, coal consumption is expected to increase by almost 5% this year, while gas consumption increased by 12% between 2015-2020.
The increase in coal consumption will be mainly driven by China (accounting for 61% of growth), the United States (18%) and India (17%), according to the report. China is currently the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal.
Recent announcements, however, signal that most G20 members are aware of the need to shift to low-carbon economies and achieve net zero targets by 2050 to limit global warming. As of August this year, 14 members of the G20 pledged to achieve net zero targets, accounting for nearly 61% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Under the Paris Agreement, each member country must submit a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) – a climate plan that sets out goals, policies and actions. As of September 2021, 13 G20 members had submitted updates to the NDC, with six setting more ambitious 2030 targets.
Yet even if fully implemented, current targets assessed by April 2021 would still lead to 2.4 Â° C warming by the end of the century, experts warn. âG20 governments must come to the table with more ambitious national emission reduction targets. The numbers in this report confirm that we can’t move the dial without them – they know it, we know it. The ball is firmly in their court ahead of COP26, âsaid Kim Coetzee of Climate Analytics, who coordinated the global analysis.
India leads the way
Abhishek Kaushik of the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) said: âIndia is the only developing country among the G20 countries with enough policies and actions to achieve its NDC goals by 2030. The country has made significant progress in terms of its voluntary mitigation targets. It aims to provide 450 GW of installed renewable capacity and recently launched the National Hydrogen Mission to promote clean energy transition. However, there is a strong need to mobilize international support (including climate finance) for resilient and inclusive growth in the country. ”
Across the G20 as a whole, the current average market share of electric vehicles in new car sales remains low at just 3.2% (outside the European Union).
Sanjay Vashist, Director of CAN South Asia, said, âAsia can and should do better to deploy renewable energy and turn the climate crisis into an opportunity for green and inclusive development. The announcements of cuts in coal funding are a good first step. But they must be followed by a plan for the complete phase-out of coal, ensuring a just transition. ”
Climate Transparency is a global partnership of 16 think tanks and NGOs. The report was produced by 16 research organizations and NGOs from 14 G20 members. It compares the efforts of the G20 in terms of adaptation, mitigation and financing; analyzes recent political developments; and identifies climate opportunities that G20 governments can seize.